The research supporting the Green Jobs Waiver is summarized below.
The Growth Energy Green Jobs Waiver to increase the ethanol blend wall to 15 percent blended into gasoline had more third-party science, from independent and state and federal studies, than any of the previous 11 waivers approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines, Report 1—UPDATED, prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (February 2009) (peer-reviewed study regarding the effects of E-15 and E-20 on motor vehicles and small non-road engines concludes that when E-15 and E-20 were compared to traditional gasoline, there are no significant changes in vehicle tailpipe emissions, vehicle driveability, or small non-road engine emissions as ethanol content increased);
Optimal Ethanol Blend-Level Investigation, Final Report, prepared by Energy & Environmental Research Center and Minnesota Center for Automotive Research for American Coalition for Ethanol (October 2007) (report studied the effects of ethanol blends ranging from E-10 to E-85 on motor vehicles and found that exhaust emissions levels for all vehicles at all levels of ethanol blend were within the applicable Clean Air Act standards);
The Feasibility of 20 Percent Ethanol Blends by Volume as a Motor Fuel, Results of Materials Compatibility and Driveability Testing, prepared by the State of Minnesota and the Renewable Fuels Association (March 2008):
- The Effects of E20 on Metals Used in Automotive Fuel System Components (study compared the effects of E-0, E-10 and E-20 on nineteen metals and found that the metals tested were compatible with all three fuels);
- The Effects of E20 on Elastomers Used in Automotive Fuel System Components (study compared the effects of E-0, E-10 and E-20 on eight elastomers and found that E-20 caused no greater change in properties than E-0 or E-10);
- The Effects of E20 on Plastic Automotive System Components (study compared the effects of E-0, E-10 and E-20 on eight plastics and found that there was no significant difference in the properties of the samples exposed to E-20 and E-10);
- The Effects of E20 on Automotive Fuel Pumps and Sending Units (study compared the effects of E-0, E-10 and E-20 on the performance of twenty-four fuel pumps and nine sending units and found that E-20 has similar effect as E-10 and E-0 on fuel pumps and sending units);
- Demonstration and Driveability Project to Determine the Feasibility of Using E20 as a Motor Fuel (study tested forty pairs of vehicles on E-0 and E-20 and found no driveability or operational issues with either fuel)
Fuel Permeation from Automotive Systems: E-0, E-6, E-10, E-20 and E-85, prepared by the Coordinating Research Council, Inc. (CRC Report No. E-65-3) (December 2006) (study evaluated effects of E-0, E-6, E-20 and E-85 on the evaporative emissions rates from permeation in five newer California vehicles and found that there was no statistically significant increase in diurnal permeation rates between E-6 and E-20);
Report to the US Senate on E-20 Ethanol Research, prepared by the Rochester Institute of Technology (October 2008) (study evaluated effects of E-20 on ten legacy vehicles; initial results after 75,000 collective miles driven found no fuel-related failures or significant vehicle problems and documented reductions in regulated tailpipe emissions when using E-20 compared to E-0);
Use of Mid-Range Ethanol/Gasoline Blends in Unmodified Passenger Cars and Light Duty Trucks, prepared by Minnesota Center for Automotive Research (July 1999) (one-year study evaluated the effects of E-10 and E-30 in fifteen older vehicles in “real world” driving conditions; found no effect on driveability or component compatibility from either fuel and found that regulated exhaust emissions from both fuels were well below federal standards);
Blending of Ethanol in Gasoline for Spark Ignition Engines: Problem Inventory and Evaporative Measurements, prepared by Stockholm University et. al., (2004-05) (study tested and compared evaporative emissions from E-0, E-5, E-10, and E-15 and found lower total hydrocarbon emissions and lower evaporative emissions from E-15 than from E-10 and E-5).